Women's Community Quilts

Patriotic Quilt Variation. Maker unknown, n.d., New York. 76” x 88 ¼” cotton, hand-piecing, hand-appliqué. Image used by permission. The Daughters of American Revolution, Washington DC. Gift of Mrs. R. P. Todd.

While certainly a testament to home and family, quilts also bear witness to women’s work outside the home. In the North, women mobilized publicly to assist in providing for soldiers’ needs, forming Soldiers’ Aid Societies and working under the auspices of the United States Sanitary Commission and its competitor, the Christian Commission, distributing an estimated 250,000 quilts to the front and hospitals from 1861 to 1865.26 Few of these simple utilitarian quilts exist today, probably due to their essential hardy use and non-specialized construction. The Daughters of the American Revolution boasts one in its collection; its fancy work belies little actual field use, though its strong political theme expresses publicly its Union support.

Alabama Gunboat Quilt. Martha Jane Hatter, ca. 1861, Greensboro, Alabama. 66” x 66” silk taffeta, wool challis, and cotton; appliqué and silk embroidery; stuffing. Birmingham Museum of Art. Pictured in Ramsey and Waldvogel, Southern Quilts: Surviving Relics of the Civil War, 87.

Southern women gathered to quilt, though under different social circumstances. Some formed Soldiers’ Aid Societies, though without the central organization of a Sanitary or Christian Commission. Other efforts occurred. Quilt historian Bryding Henley describes the work of Alabama women to raise money for the purchase of a gunboat for the Confederacy, with similar efforts occurring in Louisiana, South Carolina, Georgia, and Virginia. The Women’s Gunboat Fund in Alabama produced quilts to be sold at a community raffle. The family story associated with Martha Hatter Bullock’s “Alabama Gunboat” quilt states that it was sold and resold several times as each purchaser returned the quilt in order to maximize profit.27 While the monetary goal to obtain a gunboat was not realized, the women’s participation in the cause bolstered their loyalty and was proudly recorded in family and community lore as wartime memory through a quilt.

Women's Community Quilts

Other women gathered locally to deal with war and to commemorate what they and their loved ones experienced. Several memorial quilts illustrate this phenomenon. Friendship quilts became popular between 1840 and the outbreak of the Civil War, a period of radical change and industrialization.28 One friendship quilt, constructed by the women of Portland, Maine, demonstrates their Unionist loyalties with red, white, and blue stars and Union flag. Inscriptions penned on many blocks reveal the makers’ political and social feelings, ranging from the witty to the bloodthirsty. One in particular reads, “While our fingers guide the needles, our thoughts are intense (tents),” indicating sympathies with loved ones on the battlefront and efforts to support and sustain as well as to communicate distinct Union sentiments.29 The quilt illustrates both the community effort and overt political ideals, a memory passed down through the town’s generations.

Women's Community Quilts

Friendship. Cornelia Dow and others, 1864, Portland, Maine. 71” x 81” cotton, pieced and appliqué. Collection of Simmons family. Pictured in Ferrero, Hedges, and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 75.

Notes

Women's Community Quilts[26] Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, 51-56. See also Bonfield, 37.Women's Community Quilts
[27] Bryding Adams Henley, “Alabama Gunboat Quilts,” Alabama Heritage 8 (Spring 1988): 11-15. See also Patricia Cummings, “Gunboat Quilts: Fundraisers for the Confederacy,” The Citizen’s Companion (June/July 2007): 25-28; and Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, 66-68.
[28] See Ferrero, Hedges, and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 20.
[29] This quilt was featured in Ferrero, Hedges and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 75. This quilt effort was probably orchestrated by Cornelia Dow, whose husband, Neal, was a brigadier general in the Union army. At the time the quilt was completed, he had just been released from Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia, in exchange for a Confederate general.

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