[1] Suzanne Yabsley. Texas Quilts, Texas Women. (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 1984), xiii.

[2] Van E. Hillard, “Census, Consensus, and the Commodification of Form: The NAMES Project Quilt.” In Quilt Culture Tracing the Pattern, ed. Cheryl B. Torsney and Judy Elsley (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1994), 112, 118.

[3] See Jacqueline Tobin and Raymond G. Dobard. Hidden in Plain View: The Secret Story of Quilts and the Underground Railroad (New York: Doubleday, 1999); Marsha Macdowell, ed. African American Quiltmaking in Michigan (East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1994). Some scholars have recently discounted Tobin and Dobard's book, claiming there is no concrete information linking particular quilt patterns to the Underground Railroad. See Barbara Brackman's Fact Sheet on the Quilt Code and Leigh Fellner's "The Underground Railroad and the Quilt Code." The ability to use symbols and oral traditions, however, remains strong, associated with the textile tradition.

[4] See, for example, Yabsley, Texas Quilts, Texas Women; Ruth Haislip Roberson, ed. North Carolina Quilts (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988); Joyce D. Hammond, T’ifaifai and Quilts of Polynesia (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1986); Carolyn O. Davis, Hopi Quilting: Stitched Traditions from Ancient Community (Tucson: Sanpete Publications, 1997); Robert Charles Bishop, A Gallery of Amish Quilts: Design Diversity from a Plain People (New York: Dutton, 1976); Kae Covington. Gathered in Time: Utah Quilts and Their Makers, Settlement to 1950 (Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1997). 

[5] Elaine Hedges. Hearts and Hands: The Influence of Women and Quilts on American Society (San Francisco: Quilt Digest Press, 1987), 66, 85.

[6] Hedges, 63.

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Homespun War Memorials

[7] Barbara Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War: Nine Projects, Historic Notes, Diary Entries (Lafayette, CA: C&T Publishing, 1997), 8.

[8] Today two fragments of the quilt belong to the Kansas State Historical Society. See Kansas State Historical Society, New England Emigrant Aid Company Quilt.

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Analyzing Quilts

[9] Laurel Thatcher Ulrich. The Age of Homespun: Objects and Stories in the Creation of an American Myth (New York: Knopf, 2001), 6.

[10] Ulrich, 39-40.

[11] Peter S. Hawkins. “Naming Names: The Art of Memory and the NAMES Project AIDS Quilt,” Critical Inquiry 19:4 (Summer 1993): 757.

[12] Ann Douglas, The Feminization of American Culture (New York: Noonday Press/Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1998). See also Gail Andrews Trechsel, “Mourning Quilts in America,” Uncoverings (1989): 140.

[13] Jay Winter, Remembering War: The Great War Between Memory and History in the Twentieth Century (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006), 238-39.

[14] Pat Ferrero, Elaine Hedges, and Julie Silber, Hearts and Hands: The Influence of Women and Quilts on American Society (San Francisco: The Quilt Digest Press, 1987), 11.

[15] Judy Elsley, Quilts as Text(iles): The Semiotics of Quilting (New York: Peter Lang, 1996), 1.

[16] Michael Kammen. Mystic Chords of Memory: The Transformation of Tradition in American Culture (New York: Knopf, 1991), 10, 13.

[17] Cheryl B. Torsney and Judy Elsley, eds. Quilt Culture: Tracing the Pattern (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1994), 2.

[18] Winter, 2.

[19] Daryl M. Hafter, “Toward a Social History of Needlework Artists,” Woman’s Art Journal 2:2 (Autumn 1981-Winter 1982): 25.

[20] John Bodnar, Remaking America: Public Memory, Commemoration, and Patriotism in the Twentieth Century (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1992), 14, 7, 8, 13.

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Family and Utilitarian Quilts

[21] Although perhaps limited in her view, Brackman certainly exposes the public needlework in which women participated. Brackman, Quilts of the Civil War, 50.

[22] Catherine A. Cerny, “Quilt Ownership and Sentimental Attachments: The Structure of Memory,” Uncoverings 18 (1997): 110.

[23] Brackman, Quilts of the Civil War, 51.

[24] “If you had seen us a few days ago, where we lay on the ground you would have thought it was rather hard, but it is all over now we enjoy the present, forget the past, hope for the future. I want you Marm to send out an old quilt one that is not worth much. If we stay here all winter it will be worth every thing to us. Luch says tell his mother send him one of the same kind. Luch and I tent together and if we can have two quilts we can sleep warm, perhaps you can send one that has shielded me from the cold in days past.” 5 September 1863, Peacham Historical Society. Cited in Lynn A. Bonfield, “Quilts for Civil War Soldiers from Peacham, Vermont,” Uncoverings 22 (2001): 49.

[25] Brackman, Quilts of the Civil War, 110. Also featured in Anita Zaleski Weinraub, ed. Georgia Quilts: Piecing Together a History (Athens, GA: University of Georgia Press, 2006), 78-81.

[26] Trechsel, 140, 146, 150, 152.

[27] Weinraub, 80-81.

[28] Brackman, 94.

[29] Bets Ramsey and Merikay Waldvogel, Southern Quilts: Surviving Relics of the Civil War (Nashville: Rutledge Hill Press, 1998), 50-53.

[30] Ramsey and Waldvogel, Southern Quilts, 63-66.

[31] Ramsey and Waldvogel, Southern Quilts, 47-49. It is strange that such a beautiful, pristine white quilt would be sent for the use of soldiers, or why the quilt bearing typhus germs would not have been destroyed. Regardless of the authenticity of this quilt, its stories serve a powerful purpose in the memory of the Civil War.

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Women's Community Quilts

[32] Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, 51-56. See also Bonfield, 37.

[33] Bryding Adams Henley, “Alabama Gunboat Quilts,” Alabama Heritage 8 (Spring 1988): 11-15. See also Patricia Cummings, “Gunboat Quilts: Fundraisers for the Confederacy,” The Citizen’s Companion (June/July 2007): 25-28; and Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, 66-68.

[34] See Ferrero, Hedges, and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 20.

[35] This quilt was featured in Ferrero, Hedges and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 75. This quilt effort was probably orchestrated by Cornelia Dow, whose husband, Neal, was a brigadier general in the Union army. At the time the quilt was completed, he had just been released from Libby Prison in Richmond, Virginia, in exchange for a Confederate general.

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Quilt Designs

[36] Ferrero, Hedges, and Silber, Hearts and Hands, 11.

[37] Ramsey and Waldvogel, Southern Quilts, 19-22.

[38] See Mark Lipinski's blog, 30 September 2007.

[39] Ferrero, Hedges, and Silver, Hearts and Hands, 78.

[40] Ferrero, Hedges, and Silver, Hearts and Hands, 10.

[41] See Antiques Roadshow online

[42] See World War II Quilts, exhibition, curated by Sue Reich, New England Quilt Museum, 2005. CD Rom.

[43] Marita Sturken, Tangled Memories: The Vietnam War, the AIDS Epidemic, and the Politics of Remembering (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 58-59.

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Quilt Creation

[44] Patsy and Myron Orlofsky. Quilts in America (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1974), 164.

[45] Weinraub, Georgia Quilts, 139.

[46] Janet Catherine Berlo, Quilting Lessons: Notes from the Scrap Bag of a Writer and Quilter (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2001), 4-5.

[47] Henley, 17.

[48] Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, 68.

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Quilt Preservation

[49] Kammen, 315.

[50] Cerny, 95.

[51] Henley, 14.

[52] Ulrich, 415.

[53] Kammen, 322.

[54] Ulrich, 6.

[55] Exhibition label, New England Quilt Museum.

[56] Kammen, 537.

[57] Many 9/11 quilt websites exist: 911 Memorial QuiltsWorld Trade Center Quilt; Pentagon quilts and more on the Pentagon quilts.

[58] Barbara Brackman, Civil War Women: Their Quilts, Their Roles, Activities for Re-Enactors (Lafayette, CA: C&T Publishing, 2000), 4-5. See also Brackman, Quilts from the Civil War, and Rosemary Young, The Civil War Diary Quilt (Iola, WI: KP Books, 2005).

[59] See Terry Thompson and Quilting 101.

[60] See Antiques Roadshow.

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